CWM Addictive Behaviours

Addictive Behaviours

The availability of information and services that provide advice and counseling on addictive behaviours is important to manage the impact of these behaviours on individuals.

Addictive behaviours such as alcohol dependence and misuse and smoking can have a significant emotional, health and financial impact on the individual, their family and friends, and communities. 

Indicators: Alcohol consumption
Smoking prevalence
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Data sources: National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC)
South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance Systems (SAMSS)
South Australian Medical and Research Institute (SAHMRI)
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Strategies / Plans: Regional Public Health Plan 2015
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Community Plan 2035: Objective 2.2 Dynamic and safe communities
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Alcohol consumption

Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of injury, particularly from road and other accidents, as well as lead to extensive health issues. Alcohol can also be a major contributor to social issues such as violence, crime and family breakdown.

In the short term, alcohol consumption can lead to an increased risk of accidents and injuries such as road accidents or alcohol-induced violence immediately after drinking. Alcohol consumption over the long-term can lead to increased risk of diseases and greater prevalence of health issues, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, liver disease, overweight and obesity.

The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) publish Australian alcohol guidelines in relation to risk levels for different patterns of drinking (29), these are summarised in Table 1.

Table 1: National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines for risk of harm from alcohol in the short- and long-term, 2001

    Standard Drinks
  Gender Low Risk Risky High Risk
Risk in the short term Males Up to 6 on any one day, no more than 3 days per week 7 to 10 on any one day 11 or more on any one day
Females Up to 4 on any one day, no more than 3 days per week 5 to 6 on any one day 7 or more on any one day
Risk in the long term Males

Up to 4 per day
Up to 28 per week

5 to 6 per day
29 to 42 per week

7 or more per day
43 or more weekly

Females

Up to 2 per day
Up to 14 per week

3 to 4 per day
15 to 28 per week

5 or more per day
29 or more weekly

Source: National Health and Medical Research Council (29)

 

The South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (SAMSS) is owned by SA Health and is an epidemiological monitoring system, provided by Population Research and Outcome Studies within the Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide. Data has been collected every month since July 2002 with an aim to detect and facilitate the understanding of trends in the prevalence of chronic conditions, risk and protective factors, and other determinants of health for South Australians aged 16 years and over.

In the 2014-15 SAMSS assessment of short-term risk of alcohol consumption, a total of 679 respondents were included for the City of Onkaparinga and a total of 5696 South Australians (30). For the assessment of long-term risk of alcohol consumption, a total of 681 respondents aged 16 and over were interviewed for the City of Onkaparinga and a total of 5716 South Australians aged 16 and over (30)

Data analysis

Short-term risk of alcohol consumption

In 2014-15, the proportion of respondents living in the City of Onkaparinga identifying themselves as non-drinkers was almost 20 per cent (Figure 1). The majority of respondents were classified as at ‘low-risk’ of harm from alcohol related injury or disease in the short-term. Marginally more than 25 per cent of respondents were identified as ‘risky’ or at ‘high risk’ of harm due to alcohol consumption. 

Figure 1: Proportion of respondents by short-term risk from alcohol consumption, City of Onkaparinga, 2008-09 to 2014-15

CWM Proportion of respondents by short-term risk from alcohol consumption, City of Onkaparinga, 2008-09 to 2014-15
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance system (30)

 

In 2014-15 the City of Onkaparinga had a greater proportion of non-drinkers compared with South Australia (1.8 per cent more) (Figure 1 and 2). The City of Onkaparinga also had a smaller proportion of drinkers who were considered either ‘low risk’ (1.1 per cent less) or ‘risky’ drinkers (2.0 per cent less) when compared with South Australia. However, the City of Onkaparinga did have a higher proportion of ‘high risk’ drinkers compared with South Australia (1.4 per cent more). 

Figure 2: Proportion of respondents by short-term risk from alcohol consumption, South Australia, 2008-09 to 2014-15

CWM Proportion of respondents by short-term risk from alcohol consumption, City of Onkaparinga, 2008-09 to 2014-15

Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance system (30)

 

Long-term risk of alcohol consumption

In 2014-15, the proportion of respondents living in the City of Onkaparinga who identified themselves as non-drinkers was almost 20 per cent (Figure 3). The large majority of respondents were classified as ‘low-risk’ of harm from alcohol related injury or disease in the long-term (over 76 per cent). Only a very small proportion of respondents were identified as either ‘risky’ or at ‘high risk’ of harm due to alcohol consumption (3.9 per cent). 

 

Figure 3: Proportion of respondents by long-term risk from alcohol consumption, City of Onkaparinga, 2008-09 to 2014-15

CWM Proportion of respondents by long-term risk from alcohol consumption, City of Onkaparinga, 2008-09 to 2014-15
Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (30)

 

In 2014-15 the City of Onkaparinga had a greater proportion of non-drinkers compared with South Australia (1.3 per cent more) (Figures 3 and 4). The City of Onkaparinga had a slightly lesser proportion of ‘low risk’ drinkers (1.3 per cent less), and the proportion of drinkers considered ‘risky’ or at ‘high risk’ were the same for both City of Onkaparinga and South Australia.

Figure 4: Proportion of respondents by long-term risk from alcohol consumption, South Australia, 2008-09 to 2014-15

CWM Proportion of respondents by long-term risk from alcohol consumption, South Australia, 2008-09 to 2014-15
Source: Source: South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System (30)

 

Trend analysis

CWM alcohol consumption trend analysis

Short-term risk of alcohol consumption

When comparing the proportion of respondents in the City of Onkaparinga by short-term risk from alcohol in 2008-09 with 2014-15, there has been a 28.3 per cent increase in proportion of non-drinkers, a 2.9 per cent increase in the proportion of ‘low-risk’ drinkers, and a reduction in both the proportion of ‘risky’ and ‘high risk’ drinkers, by 20.7 per cent and 3.1 per cent, respectively (Figure 1).

In comparison, South Australia actually had a slight decrease in the proportion of non-drinkers, by 3.8 per cent, between 2008-09 and 2014-15 (Figure 2). There was also a 7.3 per cent increase in the proportion of ‘low risk’ drinkers, and a reduction in both the proportion of ‘risky’ and ‘high risk’ drinkers, by 8.7 per cent and 25.3 per cent, respectively.

Long-term risk of alcohol consumption

When comparing the proportion of City of Onkaparinga respondents by long-term risk from alcohol in 2008-09 with 2014-15, there has been a 30.3 per cent increase in proportion of non-drinkers and a 5.6 per cent decrease in the proportion of ‘low-risk’ drinkers (Figure 3). There was a very small increase in the proportion of ‘risky’ (2.2 per cent and slight reduction in the proportion of ‘high risk’ drinkers (1.2 per cent decrease).

For South Australia, there was very little change between 2008-09 and 2014-15 (Figure 4). There were no changes in the proportion of non-drinkers and ‘risky’ drinkers, however, there was a slight increase in the proportion of ‘low risk’ drinkers (1.4 per cent more) and a reduction in the proportion of ‘high risk’ drinkers (28 per cent less). 

 

Policy implications

While the trends for risk of harm related to alcohol have markedly improved over the last seven years, it is important that the City of Onkaparinga continue to achieve the aims of the Community Plan Objective 2.1 Healthy, Active Lifestyles to ensure that our communities are able to continue to make informed decisions regarding alcohol consumption, particularly as it can significantly affect our quality of life in both the short and longer term. The aims of the Regional Public Health Plan 2015 are to continue to support community healthy lifestyle programs funded by external agencies and to disseminate information about the risk factors associated with the consumption of alcohol. Moreover, a priority of the Regional Public Health Plan 2015 is to target vulnerable communities to ensure they are well supported and participating in existing community programs and services.

Smoking prevalence

Cigarettes and tobacco smoke are made up of thousands of chemicals, with the majority of them having harmful effects on people’s health. Long-term smokers are at a higher risk of developing cancer, particularly of the lungs, mouth, nose, throat and oesophagus, lung disease including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, heart disease and poor blood circulation.

Annual smoking prevalence data for South Australia was obtained from the South Australian Health Omnibus Survey (HOS), which is a state-wide, annual household survey conducted via face-to-face interviews with individuals aged 15 and over. The Tobacco Control Research and Evaluation Unit, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI), evaluated the data from each of the HOSs from 2007 to 2014 and matched South Australian Statistical Local Areas obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics to identify respondents from the City of Onkaparinga (31).

Smoking status was determined from the question ‘Do you currently smoke cigarettes, cigars, pipes or any other tobacco products’? Those who responded that they smoked ‘daily’ were classified as ‘daily smokers’ and those who responded as either ‘daily’, ‘at least weekly (not daily)’ or ‘less often than weekly’ were classified as ‘All current smokers’.

In 2014-15 there were 344 participants from the City of Onkaparinga and 2732 for South Australia.

Data analysis

Daily smoking prevalence

In 2014 there was a total of 13.2 per cent of respondents in the City of Onkaparinga who smoked daily (Figure 5). City of Onkaparinga daily smoking prevalence was slightly higher than the 2014 South Australian daily smoking prevalence of 12.8 per cent (0.4 per cent higher) (Figure 5).

Figure 5: Smoking prevalence for those who smoke daily, City of Onkaparinga and South Australia, 2007 to 2014

CWM Smoking prevalence for those who smoke daily, City of Onkaparinga and South Australia, 2007 to 2014
Source: South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (31)

 

Smoking prevalence for all current smokers

In 2014, the smoking prevalence of all current smokers (daily, weekly and less than weekly smokers) for the City of Onkaparinga was 17.1 per cent (Figure 6), which was slightly higher than the South Australian smoking prevalence of 15.7 per cent (1.4 per cent higher). 

 

Figure 6: Smoking prevalence for those who were current smokers (daily, weekly or less than weekly), City of Onkaparinga and South Australia, 2007 to 2014

CWM Smoking prevalence for those who were current smokers (daily, weekly or less than weekly), City of Onkaparinga and South Australia, 2007 to 2014
Source: South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute (31)

 

Trend analysis

CWM smoking prevalence trend analysis

When comparing daily smoking prevalence in the City of Onkaparinga between 2007 and 2014, there has been a reduction by 14.3 per cent (Figure 5). A slightly greater reduction in daily smoking prevalence of 24.7 per cent was observed for South Australia.

There has been a reduction of 7.1 per cent in the smoking prevalence of all current smokers in the City of Onkaparinga in 2014 when compared with 2007 (Figure 6). Similarly, the smoking prevalence of all current smokers in South Australia has also decreased between 2007 and 2014, by 21.9 per cent, which was slightly higher than that observed for the City of Onkaparinga.

Policy implications

Smoking prevalence for daily and current smokers decreased in the City of Onkaparinga and South Australia between 2007 and 2014, however the observed decreases in both daily and current smoking prevalence was greater for the state.

As outlined in Community Plan Objective 2.1 Healthy, Active Lifestyles the City of Onkaparinga will continue to ensure that our communities are able to make informed decisions regarding health related issues, particularly the health risks associated with smoking which can significantly impact quality of life and morbidity. Therefore, council will continue to support and promote community healthy lifestyle programs funded by external agencies and to disseminate information about the risk factors associated with smoking, which will not only assist with the reducing the proportion of current smokers, but importantly also ensure that the uptake of smoking is reduced. A priority of the Regional Public Health Plan 2015 is to target vulnerable communities to ensure they are well supported and participating in existing community programs and services.

 


 

This indicator is linked to other strategies, plans and targets outlined below:

Government of South Australia South Australia’s Strategic Plan Targets: 80. Smoking: reduce the smoking rate to 10% of the population and halve the smoking rate of Aboriginal South Australians by 2018.
81. Alcohol consumption: reduce the proportion of South Australians who drink at risky levels by 30% by 2020.  
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Other State Strategies • South Australian Tobacco Control Strategy 2011-16 (under review)
• South Australian Alcohol and Other Drug Strategy 2011-16 (under review)
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National Strategies: • National Tobacco Strategy 2012-18
• National Drug Strategy 2010-15 (under review)
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